The neutralized city
“Neutralize” is a word regularly used to describe the action of armed forces overcoming their adversary in a conflict. Yet this action – whether in an actual war or in the context of some form of repression – can occur anywhere: its very principle involves a polymorphous and changing theatre of operations, unlimited both de jure and de facto. However, the idea emerged that this theatre had recurring forms and that there therefore must be a kind of ideal scene of neutralization and of the exercise of force. It ensues that one could build, for training purposes, a spatial model able to effectively reproduce the setting or the décor of the most frequently conducted actions. While the countryside and undeveloped areas used to – for the most part – do the job, the omnipresence of urban reality (including in modern-day conflict) has led to the creation of cities or fragments of cities that are like real-size models of the theatre of operations: the ideal city, one may say, from the perspective of the police or the army.
Such cities or pseudo-cities exist just about everywhere where there are the resources to build them – though they are not very visible and rarely shown. But suddenly we have photos, amazing photos. Guillaume Greff had the opportunity to photograph – not for any official client, for himself – the Training Centre for Actions in Urban Areas (CENZUB), which takes up a small part of the huge Sissonne military camp (136,000 acres on the border of the Picardy and Champagne regions). Of the existing sites, the largest is still under construction: the artificial town of Jeoffrecourt. Guillaume Greff’s images document this project. And they do it remarkably well, as I’ll explain in a minute.
Two obvious facts come immediately to mind when you look at these photos. The first is that the typology of the décor indicates as much an internal enemy (a riot) as an enemy from abroad and that the artificial landscape points more towards repression than towards an actual war. The second is that the produced décor – so extremely poor and devoid of any style or accent – is startlingly similar to some of France’s suburban housing projects. To the police and the army, the ideal city is a reduction, a generic operation that only maintains the morphology and the situation and need not, therefore, be any more realistic or reproduce the network of little significant traits through which life is recomposed. This makes it all the scarier to realise that many of our existing suburbs, particularly the cloned subdivisions, resemble the neutralized city of this neutralization theatre. In other words, that the absence of traits and holds in this disused city is a rule of composition – and that the cheap city becomes the standard of a cheapened life.
Guillaume Greff’s photos therefore show that the décor of neutralization, itself neutral and devoid of any source of emotion, goes beyond its simple function to become a kind of symbolic shape of our times. A little walk around the ghost town of Sissonne is enough to demonstrate this: its streets enveloped in emptiness, its pallid façades, its composite religious building (an apparent cross between a church, a mosque and a synagogue), its concrete block walls, its bunkerized housing and even its weeds are not a copy of the existing or an imaginary projection. Sissonne is a model and – as such – an astounding ideological deposit.
But it still needed showing. And here the trap of visual overkill lay wide open. Any dramatization or aestheticization of this décor would have been a mistake or a mask. What was required was for the photography to stick to its passive virtue and achieve pure effectiveness in its task of presentation. Showing what’s not intended to be shown cracks the door open to the sensational. And it’s precisely through this narrow interval that sensationalism rushes in. The plain images obtained by Guillaume Greff are almost like postcards, but they portray a place with such power to crush the imaginary that they leave us speechless. We watch them, fascinated, finding in them the space of a life parallel to ours. The stage is set and the reason the photos say nothing of the action that will unfold here is that the photographer stayed on the threshold – exactly where he needed to be, not saying a word, in the amazement of a trespass.
Guillaume Greff was born in 1977 in Sarreguemines, in France. After receiving his Master’s degree in Fine Arts in 2005, he pursued his research on landscapes and architectural shapes.
In 2011, the Centre national des arts plastiques granted him a fellowship for “contemporary documentary photographic creation”, for his Dead Cities project. In 2012, he received the cross-border grant Regards sans limites (Limitless Gazes) for a project on the Rhine.
Between 2015 and 2018 he worked on his project Lupina, executed in Finland, Norway, Iceland and Greenland. His work has been exhibited in various galleries in Europe.
Today he is away from the human traces. He is probably in his small mountain or somewhere around the polar circle.
2018 La Filature Mulhouse, Galerie Octave Cowbell, Metz 2017 Kunsthaus Baselland, Regionale 18 Kunsthalle Palazzo, Liestal, Regionale 18 Krome Gallery, Luxembourg Paysages français, Bibliothèque
Nationale de France, Paris FABRIKculture, Hegenheim. 2016 Rurart, Centre d’art contemporain, Rouille Villa Perochon, Niort Institut français de Milan, Italie Pavillon Carré de Baudouin, Paris. 2015 Centre
National de l’Audiovisuel, Luxembourg Triennale Photographie et Architecture, La Cambre, Bruxelles. 2014 Galerie Robert Doisneau, CCAM, Nancy-Vandoeuvre Saarländisches Künstlerhaus, Saarbrücken,
Allemagne Düo, Paris. 2013 Triennale Jeune Création, Luxembourg Le Maillon – La chambre, Strasbourg Künstlerforum, Bonn, Allemagne. 2012 Galerie Schumm-Braunstein, Paris Galerie NaMiMa, ENSA, Nancy.
BOURSES & AIDES
2018 Aide aux outils de promotion, Région Grand Est. 2017 Aide individuelle à la création, DRAC Grand Est. 2014 Aide individuelle à l’aménagement, DRAC Alsace. 2012 Bourse d’aide à la création Regards Sans Limites Blicke ohne Grenzen. 2011 Aide à la création photographique documentaire contemporaine, CNAP. 2010 Bourse regards d’artistes (avec François Génot), PNR des Vosges du Nord,.
Dé(s)génération n°25, France, 2016.Sociétés & Représentations «villes mortes», Paris, 2016.Der Greif #08, Allemagne 2015.Villissima, éditions Parenthèses, Marseille, 2015. Les cahiers de l’école de Blois, Editions de La Vilette, Paris, 2013. Dead Cities, éditions Kaiserin, Paris, 2013.
Kunstnarhuset Messen, Ålvik, Norvège, 2017.Valokuvataiteilijoiden Liitto, Helsinki, Finlande, 2015.
CONFÉRENCES, RENCONTRES, ETC
ENSAD, Paris 2017 Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine, Paris, 2017 Lycée français d’Helsinki, Finlande, 2015 Centre National de Arts Plastiques, Le Bal, Paris, 2014.